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Cancers (Basel). 2019 Oct 17;11(10). pii: E1580. doi: 10.3390/cancers11101580.

Current Concepts of Non-Coding RNAs in the Pathogenesis of Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Author information

1
Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. dominik.a.barth@gmail.com.
2
Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. on.slaby@gmail.com.
3
Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. on.slaby@gmail.com.
4
Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. christiane.klec@medunigraz.at.
5
Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. juracekjaroslav@gmail.com.
6
Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. juracekjaroslav@gmail.com.
7
Research Centre for Functional Genomics and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 40015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. drula.rares@gmail.com.
8
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. gcalin@mdanderson.org.
9
Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. martin.pichler@medunigraz.at.
10
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. martin.pichler@medunigraz.at.

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a relatively rare malignancy of the urinary tract system. RCC is a heterogenous disease in terms of underlying histology and its associated underlying pathobiology, prognosis and treatment schedule. The most prevalent histological RCC subtype is clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), accounting for about 70-80% of all RCCs. Though the pathobiology and treatment schedule for ccRCC are well-established, non-ccRCC subtypes account for 20%-30% of RCC altogether, and their underlying molecular biology and treatment options are poorly defined. The class of non-coding RNAs-molecules that are generally not translated into proteins-are new cancer drivers and suppressors in all types of cancer. Of these, small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to carcinogenesis by regulating posttranscriptional gene silencing. Additionally, a growing body of evidence supports the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cancer development and progression. Most studies on non-coding RNAs in RCC focus on clear-cell histology, and there is a relatively limited number of studies on non-ccRCC subtypes. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of non-coding RNAs (including short and long non-coding RNAs) in non-ccRCC and to highlight possible implications as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

KEYWORDS:

lncRNA; long noncoding RNA; miRNA; microRNA biomarker; non-clear cell; renal cell carcinoma

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