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Clin Chem Lab Med. 2019 Oct 17. pii: /j/cclm.ahead-of-print/cclm-2019-0737/cclm-2019-0737.xml. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2019-0737. [Epub ahead of print]

Cord blood S100B: reference ranges and interest for early identification of newborns with brain injury.

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Service de Biochimie Médicale, Centre de Biologie, CHU Gabriel Montpied, 58 Rue Montalembert, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Biochemistry and Molecular Genetic Department, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Université Clermont Auvergne, Faculty of Medicine, CNRS 6293, INSERM 1103, GReD, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Canada.
Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, Canada.
Biostatistics Unit (DRCI), CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, Canada.


Background Neurological complications are common in the premature and full-term neonates admitted to the intensive care unit, but the diagnosis of these complications is often difficult to make. S100B protein, measured in cord blood, may represent a valuable tool to better identify patients at risk of brain injury. Methods As a first step, we established S100B cord blood serum reference intervals from 183 preterm and 200 full-term neonates. We then measured cord blood serum S100B to identify neurological complications in 272 neonates hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Diagnosis of brain injury relied on imaging examination. Results The 95th percentiles of S100B concentration in cord blood were established as 1.21 μg/L for the 383 neonates, 0.96 μg/L for full-term neonates and 1.36 μg/L for premature neonates. Among the 272 neonates hospitalized at the NICU, 11 presented neurological complications. Using 1.27 μg/L as the optimal sensitivity/specificity threshold, S100B differentiate neonates with and without neurological complications with a sensitivity of 45.5% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 16.7-76.6) and a specificity of 88.9% (95% CI: 84.4-92.4) (p = 0.006). In combination with arterial pH (<7.25), sensitivity increased to 90.9% (95% CI: 58.7-99.8), while specificity was 51.2% (95% CI: 44.8-57.7). The sensitivity is significantly (p = 0.03) increased in comparison to S100B alone. The specificity is significantly higher with S100B only than with pH + S100B (p < 0.001). Conclusions Cord blood S100B protein, in combination with arterial cord blood pH, has the potential to help clinicians to detect at birth neurological complications in neonates hospitalized in an NCIU.


S100B; brain injury; cord blood; neurological complications; reference ranges


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