Send to

Choose Destination
J Pathol Inform. 2019 Sep 27;10:30. doi: 10.4103/jpi.jpi_85_18. eCollection 2019.

Statistical Analysis of Survival Models Using Feature Quantification on Prostate Cancer Histopathological Images.

Author information

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Center for Biomedical Imaging and Informatics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.



Grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma is based on the Gleason scoring system and the more recently established prognostic grade groups. Typically, prostate cancer grading is performed by pathologists based on the morphology of the tumor on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) slides. In this study, we investigated the histopathological image features with various survival models and attempted to study their correlations.


Three texture methods (speeded-up robust features, histogram of oriented gradient, and local binary pattern) and two convolutional neural network (CNN)-based methods were applied to quantify histopathological image features. Five survival models were assessed on those image features in the context with other prostate clinical prognostic factors, including primary and secondary Gleason patterns, prostate-specific antigen levels, age, and clinical tumor stages.


Based on statistical comparisons among different image features with survival models, image features from CNN-based method with a recurrent neural network called CNN-long-short-term memory provided the highest hazard ratio of prostate cancer recurrence under Cox regression with an elastic net penalty.


This approach outperformed the other image quantification methods listed above. Using this approach, patient outcomes were highly correlated with the histopathological image features of the tissue samples. In future studies, we plan to investigate the potential use of this approach for predicting recurrence in a wider range of cancer types.


Histopathological image; image features; neural networks; prostate cancer; survival models

Conflict of interest statement

Dr. Singer is the principal investigator on an investigator-initiated clinical trial that is funded by Astellas/Medivation (NCT02885649) ( The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center