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Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2019 Sep 30;26(3):133-137. doi: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_29_19. eCollection 2019 Jul-Sep.

Prevalence and Determinants of Color Vision Defects among Preparatory University Students at Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Author information

1
College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
3
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
4
Department of Ophthalmology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
5
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To estimate the magnitude and determinants of color vision defects (CVD) among preparatory health science students.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017. Participants were assessed using 24-plate Ishihara's Test of Color Vision chart. If ≤9 plates were read correctly, the color vision was regarded as deficient. The CVD prevalence and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. CVD was associated with gender, family history of CVD, and other vision problems.

RESULTS:

We evaluated 1126 students (552, 49% males; mean age: 18.7 ± 0.7 years). The prevalence of CVD was 1.77% (95% CI: 1.0, 2.6). Among male students, it was 3.5% (95% CI: 1.9, 5.0). Only one female student had CVD. The Duran CVD was found in 18 (1.6%) students. However, only two students had Tritan CVD. Three among twenty CVD students knew that they suffer from CVD. CVD was positively associated to a family history of CVD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.4, 10.1;P = 0.02) and male gender (OR = 20.4 [95% CI: 2.7, 153]). CVD was not significantly associated to other vision problems (OR = 0.8 [95% CI: 0.3, 2.0]).

CONCLUSION:

Eighteen in thousand health sciences students suffered from CVD. Ten percent of them had Tritan CVD. Duran CVD seems to be a male sex-related and/or a familial condition. Most of the CVD students seem to have adopted to this defect and were not aware of suffering from it. Screening for CVD is therefore debatable.

KEYWORDS:

Color blindness; color vision screening; visual function defect

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