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Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 Sep;83(7):7060. doi: 10.5688/ajpe7060.

Use of a Modified Delphi Process to Define the Leadership Characteristics Expected of Pharmacy Faculty Members.

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Concordia University Wisconsin School of Pharmacy, Mequon, Wisconsin.
University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy, Aurora, Colorado.
AAL, Atlanta, Georgia.
University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, University, Mississippi.
West Virginia University School of Pharmacy, Morgantown, West Virginia.


Objective. To reach a consensus on a working definition for leadership and identify expectations for leadership among all pharmacy faculty members. Methods. A modified Delphi process was employed to establish consensus among experienced department and division chairs regarding the definition and expectations of faculty leadership to guide faculty evaluation and development. From the AACP faculty roster, 280 department and division chairs were surveyed to identify participants with at least five years of experience in their roles and willingness to participate. Twenty-three chairs were identified from a variety of colleges and schools to comprise the expert panel and asked to participate in three rounds of questions over a two-month period. One Likert-type question and six open-ended questions were included in round 1. A thematic analysis of round 1 responses provided items for participants to rate their agreement with and provide comments on in rounds 2 and 3. Consensus for items was set prospectively at 80% of participants selecting agree or strongly agree for each item. Items could be modified by the panel in subsequent rounds of surveys if participants suggested edits to items. Results. Consensus was achieved among 23 chairs regarding a definition, 10 guiding principles, four learning competencies, six skills, six expected leadership activities (ELAs), and 20 personal characteristics related to faculty leadership. Conclusion. The results of this study provide guidance to pharmacy faculty members and administrators regarding leadership characteristics including knowledge, skills, and activities expected for faculty members to develop into effective leaders for the academy and the pharmacy profession.


Delphi; expectations; faculty; leadership

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