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J Neurosci. 2019 Oct 16;39(42):8200-8208. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1157-19.2019.

Pleiotropic Mitochondria: The Influence of Mitochondria on Neuronal Development and Disease.

Author information

1
Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt 60438, Germany.
2
Aging & Metabolism Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104.
3
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 113-8656 Tokyo, Japan.
4
Japan Science and Technology Agency, Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, 332-0012 Saitama, Kawaguchi, Japan.
5
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne D-50931, Germany.
6
Institute of Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne D-50674, Germany.
7
Center for Molecular Medicine, Cologne D-50931, Germany.
8
Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Cologne D-50931, Germany.
9
Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
10
Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
11
Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Functional Connectomics, Brain Science Institute, Seoul, South Korea 02792, and skkwon@kist.re.kr julien.courchet@univ-lyon1.fr.
12
Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche-5310, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U-1217, Institut NeuroMyoGène, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France skkwon@kist.re.kr julien.courchet@univ-lyon1.fr.

Abstract

Mitochondria play many important biological roles, including ATP production, lipid biogenesis, ROS regulation, and calcium clearance. In neurons, the mitochondrion is an essential organelle for metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Moreover, mitochondria are extremely dynamic and able to divide, fuse, and move along microtubule tracks to ensure their distribution to the neuronal periphery. Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics are observed in a wide range of conditions, from impaired neuronal development to various neurodegenerative diseases. Novel imaging techniques and genetic tools provide unprecedented access to the physiological roles of mitochondria by visualizing mitochondrial trafficking, morphological dynamics, ATP generation, and ultrastructure. Recent studies using these new techniques have unveiled the influence of mitochondria on axon branching, synaptic function, calcium regulation with the ER, glial cell function, neurogenesis, and neuronal repair. This review provides an overview of the crucial roles played by mitochondria in the CNS in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

KEYWORDS:

energy; mitochondria; neurodegenerative disease; neuronal development; synaptic function

PMID:
31619488
PMCID:
PMC6794931
[Available on 2020-04-16]
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1157-19.2019

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