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Mol Cell Biochem. 2019 Oct 14. doi: 10.1007/s11010-019-03640-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Silibinin inhibits migration and invasion of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through induction of mitochondrial fusion.

Author information

1
Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
2
Department of Chemistry and Life Science, School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Nakanomachi, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0015, Japan.
3
Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix, Toride, Ibaraki, 302-0017, Japan.
4
Medical Research Institute of Curing Mibyo, 1-6-28 Narusedai, Machida, Tokyo, 194-0042, Japan.
5
Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. ikejimat@vip.sina.com.
6
Key Laboratory of Computational Chemistry-Based Natural Antitumor Drug Research & Development, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. ikejimat@vip.sina.com.

Abstract

Human triple negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, show typical epithelial to mesenchymal transition associated with cancer progression. Mitochondria play a major role in cancer progression, including metastasis. Changes in mitochondrial architecture affect cellular migration, autophagy and apoptosis. Silibinin is reported to have anti-breast cancer effect. We here report that silibinin at lower concentrations (30-90 μM) inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MDA-MB-231, by increasing the expression of epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and decreasing the expression of mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and vimentin. Besides, silibinin inhibition of cell migration is associated with reduction in the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) and paxillin. In addition, silibinin treatment increases mitochondrial fusion through down-regulating the expression of mitochondrial fission-associated protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and up-regulating the expression of mitochondrial fusion-associated proteins, optic atrophy 1, mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2. Silibinin perturbed mitochondrial biogenesis via down-regulating the levels of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators including mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1) and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF2). Moreover, DRP1 knockdown or silibinin inhibited cell migration, and MFN1&2 knockdown restored it. Mitochondrial fusion contributes to silibinin's negative effect on cell migration. Silibinin decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, leading to inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, knockdown of mitofusin 1&2 (MFN 1&2) relieved silibinin-induced inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Repression of ROS contributes to the inhibition of the expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-β proteins as well as of cell migration. Taken together, our study provides evidence that silibinin impairs mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis, resulting in reduced migration and invasion of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

KEYWORDS:

Inflammation; MDA-MB-231 cells; Migration and invasion; Mitochondrial fusion; ROS; Silibinin

PMID:
31612353
DOI:
10.1007/s11010-019-03640-6

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