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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Nov 1;82(3):314-320. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002135.

Effectiveness of Transmitted Drug Resistance Testing Before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals.

Author information

1
Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
3
Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
4
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
5
Southern Alberta Clinic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
6
Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
7
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
8
Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
9
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
10
Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
11
Stichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
12
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
13
Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
14
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
15
Aristotle Univerisity of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
16
Ramón y Cajal Hospital, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain.
17
University of Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
18
Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
19
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

For people living with HIV, major guidelines in high-income countries recommend testing for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to guide the choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, individuals who fail a first-line regimen can now be switched to one of several effective regimens. Therefore, the virological and clinical benefit of TDR testing needs to be evaluated.

METHODS:

We included individuals from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration who enrolled <6 months of HIV diagnosis between 2006 and 2015, were ART-naive, and had measured CD4 count and HIV-RNA. Follow-up started at the date when all inclusion criteria were first met (baseline). We compared 2 strategies: (1) TDR testing within 3 months of baseline versus (2) no TDR testing. We used inverse probability weighting to estimate the 5-year proportion and hazard ratios (HRs) of virological suppression (confirmed HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL), and of AIDS or death under both strategies.

RESULTS:

Of 25,672 eligible individuals (82% males, 52% diagnosed in 2010 or later), 17,189 (67%) were tested for TDR within 3 months of baseline. Of these, 6% had intermediate- or high-level TDR to any antiretroviral drug. The estimated 5-year proportion virologically suppressed was 77% under TDR testing and 74% under no TDR testing; HR 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.19). The estimated 5-year risk of AIDS or death was 6% under both strategies; HR 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.95 to 1.12).

CONCLUSIONS:

TDR prevalence was low. Although TDR testing improved virological response, we found no evidence that it reduced the incidence of AIDS or death in first 5 years after diagnosis.

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