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J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2019 Sep 28;7(3):263-274. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2019.00024. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine-related Drug-induced Liver Injury in Asia.

Author information

1
The Liver Unit and Monarch Liver Lab, Cochin Gastroenterology Group, Ernakulam Medical Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India.
2
Gastroenterology, Cochin Gastroenterology Group, Ernakulam Medical Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India.
3
Interventional Radiology, Cochin Gastroenterology Group, Ernakulam Medical Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India.
4
Gastroenterology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
5
Gastroenterology, Aster MIMS, Calicut, Kerala, India.

Abstract

The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) for treatment of acute and chronic diseases is on the rise world over, especially in Asian countries, and mostly in China and India. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) due to CAM is increasingly reported in the literature from multiple centers all around the world and with large-number patient series published from the West, mostly based on nation-wide DILI networks and multicenter collaboration. Comprehensive DILI networks are lacking among major Asian countries with high incidence of CAM practices. Chinese medical societies dealing with drug toxicity, CAM practice and hepatobiliary disease have adopted an integrated approach to establishing identification, diagnosis and treatment of CAM-related DILI, representing a systematic approach that could be iterated by other countries for improving patient outcomes. In this exhaustive review, we provide published data on CAM-related DILI in Asia, with detail on incidences along with analysis of patient population and their clinical outcomes. Concise and clear discussion on commonly implicated CAM agents in major Asian countries and associated chemical and toxicology analyses as well as descriptions of liver biopsy findings are discussed with future directions.

KEYWORDS:

ACLF; Ayurveda; CAM; Chinese; Cirrhosis; DILI; Hepatitis; Herbals; Liver biopsy

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interests related to this publication.

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