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Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Oct;22(10):1448-1456. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_186_19.

CBCT analysis of schneiderian membrane thickness and its relationship with gingival biotype and arch form.

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Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.



The purpose of this study was to investigate a relationship between gingival tissue biotypes and arch form with Schneiderian membrane thickness, using limited cone beam computed tomography.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 90 subjects were selected. For each subject three parameters were assessed - gingival biotype - clinically by Probe transparency method as thin or thick and coded as 0 and 1, respectively, gingival thickness and Schneiderian membrane thickness in mm, arch form as square, oval, or tapered (radiographically by cone beam computed tomography images). Central incisors and first molars were assessed for gingival biotype and gingival thickness and Schneiderian membrane thickness was determined at 16. Numerical data were estimated for normal distribution. Analysis of Variance test was followed by Tukey honestly significant difference test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test for analysis.


Thin gingival biotype was found associated with the central incisors and thick gingival biotype with molars. Limited cone beam computed tomography scans evaluation revealed highest prevalence of square arch form followed by oval, and tapered. The average thickness of the Schneiderian membrane was 1.18 ± 0.43 mm on left side and 1.09 ± 0.41 mm on right side with a range of 0.50 - 2.00 mm. Mean Schneiderian membrane thickness was more in case of thick gingival biotype and with square arc form both on right and left sides.


The Schneiderian membrane thickness was positively and highly associated with gingival biotype. The gingival biotype and arch form had significant effect on Schneiderian membrane thickness and can provide valuable clinical information on Schneiderian membrane thickness preoperatively for implant placement and sinus lift procedures.


Cone beam computed tomography; dental implant; gingival biotype; sinus lift


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