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Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Oct;22(10):1378-1387. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_413_14.

Antibacterial activity of Salvadora persica against oral pathogenic bacterial isolates.

Author information

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, KSA.
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University, Al Minufiyah, Egypt.
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.



The objective was to determine the antibacterial activity of Salvadora persica extract against bacteria isolated from dental plaque of patients.

Materials and Methods:

Out of 40 different clinical specimens collected from patients suffering from plaque-induced gingivitis, 12 Staphylococcus aureus and 8 Streptococcus sp. isolates were recovered. The isolates were screened for their biofilm-forming capacity using tissue culture plate (TCP), tube method (TM), and congo red agar (CRA) method. Antibacterial activity of methanolic S. persica extract as well as of commercial antimicrobials against tested isolates was performed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS) analysis were performed for S. persica crude extract and its volatile oil, respectively, to determine their constituents.


Out of 20 isolates, 80%, 85%, and 90% showed positive results using TM, CRA, and TCP, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activity of methanolic S. persica extract was observed at 200 mg/ml. HPLC-MS analysis shows many polyphenols in S. persica extract such as Chrysin-8-c-β-D-glucopyranoside, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and stigmasterol. Chemical composition of the essential oil of S. persica was determined by GC-MS yield; a mixture of monoterpene and hydrocarbons. The major compounds were butylated hydroxytoluene followed by benzene (isothiocyanatomethyl).


Methanolic extract of S. persica had significant antibacterial effect against S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. isolates, and it may be gave a good alternative method for controlling oral pathogen.


Antibacterial activity; Salvadora persica; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus spp; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; plaque-induced gingivitis


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