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Cell. 2019 Oct 17;179(3):589-603. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.051. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Genome-wide Association Studies in Ancestrally Diverse Populations: Opportunities, Methods, Pitfalls, and Recommendations.

Author information

1
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. Electronic address: roseann.peterson@vcuhealth.org.
2
Division of Psychiatry and UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London W1T 7NF, UK.
3
Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
4
Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
5
Department of Biomedical Data Science, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
6
Queensland Brain Institute and Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
7
Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK.
8
Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8RZ, UK; Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SE 17176, Sweden.
9
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, USA.
10
Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
11
Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
12
Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.
13
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68159 Mannheim, Germany.
14
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
15
Mental Health Section of MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Global Initiative for Neuropsychiatric Genetics Education in Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Broad Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
16
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Global Initiative for Neuropsychiatric Genetics Education in Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Broad Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
17
Global Initiative for Neuropsychiatric Genetics Education in Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Broad Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; MRC Human Genetics Research Unit, Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
18
Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
19
Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
20
Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE 17176, Sweden; Genetics and Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
21
Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK.
22
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago 7620001, Chile; Mental Health Service, Clínica Universidad de los Andes, Santiago 7620001, Chile; Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
23
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico; Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
24
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
25
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused primarily on populations of European descent, but it is essential that diverse populations become better represented. Increasing diversity among study participants will advance our understanding of genetic architecture in all populations and ensure that genetic research is broadly applicable. To facilitate and promote research in multi-ancestry and admixed cohorts, we outline key methodological considerations and highlight opportunities, challenges, solutions, and areas in need of development. Despite the perception that analyzing genetic data from diverse populations is difficult, it is scientifically and ethically imperative, and there is an expanding analytical toolbox to do it well.

KEYWORDS:

GWAS; admixed populations; ancestry; complex disease; cross-ancestry; diversity; population genetics; psychiatry; trans-ancestry; trans-ethnic

PMID:
31607513
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.051

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