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Cell. 2019 Oct 17;179(3):604-618. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.055. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

R Loops: From Physiological to Pathological Roles.

Author information

1
Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa (CABIMER), Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, 41092 SEVILLE, Spain.
2
Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa (CABIMER), Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, 41092 SEVILLE, Spain. Electronic address: aguilo@us.es.

Abstract

DNA-RNA hybrids play a physiological role in cellular processes, but often, they represent non-scheduled co-transcriptional structures with a negative impact on transcription, replication and DNA repair. Accumulating evidence suggests that they constitute a source of replication stress, DNA breaks and genome instability. Reciprocally, DNA breaks facilitate DNA-RNA hybrid formation by releasing the double helix torsional conformation. Cells avoid DNA-RNA accumulation by either preventing or removing hybrids directly or by DNA repair-coupled mechanisms. Given the R-loop impact on chromatin and genome organization and its potential relation with genetic diseases, we review R-loop homeostasis as well as their physiological and pathological roles.

PMID:
31607512
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.055

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