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J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019 Sep 25:126413. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.126413. [Epub ahead of print]

Neurotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells.

Author information

1
Center of Studies in Health and Environment, School of Science and Technology, National University of San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: sebaferraro@gmail.com.
2
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Odontología, Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Research Fellow of the University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: marieladomingo@hotmail.com.
3
Center of Studies in Health and Environment, School of Science and Technology, National University of San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: abetcheverrito@gmail.com.
4
National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Odontología, Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: olmedodg@gmail.com.
5
Center of Studies in Health and Environment, School of Science and Technology, National University of San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Odontología, Cátedra de Histología y Embriología, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: dtasat@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Titanium is widely used in biomedicine. Due to biotribocorrosion, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) can be released from the titanium implant surface, enter the systemic circulation, and migrate to various organs and tissues including the brain. A previous study showed that 5 nm TiO2 NPs reached the highest concentration in the brain. Even though TiO2 NPs are believed to possess low toxicity, little is known about their neurotoxic effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of 5 nm TiO2 NPs on a human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

METHODS:

Cell cultures were divided into non-exposed and exposed to TiO2 NPs for 24 h. The following were evaluated: reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, cellular antioxidant response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy.

RESULTS:

Exposure to TiO2 NPs induced ROS generation in a dose dependent manner, with values reaching up to 10 fold those of controls (p < 0.001). Nrf2 nuclear localization and autophagy, also increased in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis increased by 4- to 10-fold compared to the control group, depending on the dose employed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results show that TiO2 NPs cause ROS increase, induction of ER stress, Nrf2 cytoplasmic translocation to the nucleus and apoptosis. Thus, neuroblastoma cell response to TiO2 NPs may be associated with an imbalance of the oxidative metabolism where endoplasmic reticulum-mediated signal pathway seems to be the main neurotoxic mechanism.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Nanoparticles; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Titanium

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