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J Pediatr. 2019 Oct 9. pii: S0022-3476(19)31086-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.08.028. [Epub ahead of print]

Outcomes at 18 to 22 Months of Corrected Age for Infants Born at 22 to 25 Weeks of Gestation in a Center Practicing Active Management.

Author information

1
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA.
2
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA. Electronic address: Tarah-Colaizy@uiowa.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the outcomes in actively managed extremely preterm infants after admission to a neonatal intensive care unit.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective cohort of 255 infants born at 22-25 weeks of gestation between 2006 and 2015 at a single study institution. Infants were excluded for congenital anomaly, death in delivery room, or parental request for palliation (n = 7). Neurodevelopmental outcomes were analyzed for 169 of 214 survivors (78.9%) at 18-22 months of corrected age. Outcomes were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U, χ2, or Fisher exact test, where appropriate. In addition, cognitive scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development (3rd edition) were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

RESULTS:

Seventy infants born at 22-23 weeks of gestation (22 weeks, n = 20; 23 weeks, n = 50) and 178 infants born at 24-25 weeks of gestation (24 weeks, n = 79; 25 weeks, n = 99 infants) were included. Survival to hospital discharge of those surviving to NICU admission was 78% (55/70; 95% CI, 69%-88%) at 22-23 weeks and 89% (159/178; 95% CI, 84%-93% at 24-25 weeks; P = .02). No or mild neurodevelopmental impairment in surviving infants was 64% (29/45; 95% CI, 50%-77%) at 22-23 weeks and 76% (94/124; 95% CI, 68%-83%; P = .16) at 24-25 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although survival was lower in infants born at 22-23 weeks than at 24-25 weeks of gestation, the majority of survivors in both groups had positive outcomes with no or mild neurodevelopmental impairments. Further evaluation of school performance is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

extreme prematurity; mortality; neurodevelopmental outcome; periviability

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