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Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Dec;145:349-356. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.10.007. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Increase in omega-6 and decrease in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation elevates the risk of exudative AMD development in adults with Chinese diet.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Hong Kong Ophthalmic Associates, Hong Kong SAR, China.
3
Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, UMR 5247 CNRS, ENSCM, Université de Montpellier, France.
4
Department of Vision Informatics, Osaka University, Japan.
5
Department of Ophthalmology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.
6
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address: jettylee@hku.hk.

Abstract

Appropriate diet is essential for the regulation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In particular the type of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and poor antioxidant status including carotenoid levels concomitantly contribute to AMD risk. Build-up of oxidative stress in AMD induces PUFA oxidation, and a mix of lipid oxidation products (LOPs) are generated. However, LOPs are not comprehensively evaluated in AMD. LOPs are considered biomarkers of oxidative stress but also contributes to inflammatory response. In this cross-sectional case-control study, plasma omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratios and antioxidant status (glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase), and plasma and urinary LOPs (41 types) were determined to evaluate its odds-ratio in the risk of developing exudative AMD (n = 99) compared to age-gender-matched healthy controls (n = 198) in adults with Chinese diet. The odds ratio of developing exudative AMD increased with LOPs from omega-6 PUFA and decreased from those of omega-3 PUFA. These observations were associated with a high plasma omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio and low carotenoid levels. In short, poor PUFA and antioxidant status increased the production of omega-6 PUFA LOPs such as dihomo-isoprostane and dihomo-isofuran, and lowered omega-3 PUFA LOPs such as neuroprostanes due to the high omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratios; they were also correlated to the risk of AMD development. These findings indicate the generation of specific LOPs is associated with the development of exudative AMD.

KEYWORDS:

4-HNE; Carotenoids; Isoprostanes; Lipid peroxidation; Macular degeneration; Neuroprostanes; Omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio

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