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J Intern Med. 2019 Oct 11. doi: 10.1111/joim.12987. [Epub ahead of print]

Leisure-time physical activity and life expectancy in people with cardiometabolic multimorbidity and depression.

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From the, Diabetes Research Centre, Leicester General Hospital, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
Leicester Diabetes Centre, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care - East Midlands (CLAHRC-EM, Leicester, UK.
Leicester Diabetes Centre, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Leicester, UK.
Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Division of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.



Whether and to what extent leisure-time physical activity at the recommended levels of 150-min moderate activity is associated with survival in people with cardiometabolic multimorbidity and depression is unknown.


UK Biobank participants were classified into groups: (i) no disease; (ii) diabetes; (iii) cardiovascular disease (CVD); (iv) depression; (v) diabetes and CVD; (vi) diabetes and depression; (vii) CVD and depression; (viii) diabetes, CVD and depression. Leisure-time physical activity was categorized as active (meeting recommendations) or inactive. Survival models were applied to estimate life expectancy.


A total of 480 940 participants were included (median age, 58 years; 46% men; 95% white), of whom 74% with cardiometabolic multimorbidity and depression were inactive. During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 11 006 deaths occurred. At age of 45 years, being physically active was associated with 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.93, 3.54) additional years of life compared with being inactive in participants with diabetes; corresponding estimates were 2.28 (1.40, 3.16) for CVD; 2.15 (0.05, 4.26) for diabetes and CVD; and 1.58 (1.27, 1.89) for no disease. Participants with a combination of diabetes, CVD and depression, being active was associated with 6.81 (-1.50, 15.31) additional years compared with being inactive; corresponding estimates were 3.07 (-2.46, 8.59) for diabetes and depression; 2.34 (-1.24, 5.91) for CVD and depression; and 0.80 (-0.46, 2.05) for depression. A similar pattern was found at 65 years.


Meeting the recommended level of physical activity was associated with a longer life expectancy in people with cardiometabolic multimorbidity but not in those with depression.


UK biobank; cardiometabolic multimorbidity; depression; leisure-time physical activity; life expectancy


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