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Anesth Essays Res. 2019 Jul-Sep;13(3):452-464. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_117_19.

Survey of Surgeons Attitude to Local Anesthetics for Postoperative Pain Relief.

Author information

Department of Anesthesiology, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anesthesiology, NMC Speciality Hospital, Ruwi, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Grantham and District Hospital, Grantham NG31 8DG, England.
Department of Orthopedics, Al Ameen Medical College, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India.
Department of Statistics, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.
Department of Anesthesiology, BLDE University and Shri B M Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.



There is no ideal postoperative pain management. Simple surgeon-delivered local anesthetic (LA) techniques such as wound infiltration and regional nerve blocks can play a significant role in the improvement of postoperative pain relief.

Settings and Design:

Administered paper questionnaires to delegates attending surgical society conferences.


A 15-point questionnaire was administered to surgical delegates attending general surgey, orthopedic and gynecological conferences at different locations.


Response rate was 65.26%. 33% of surgeons used LA regularly, 31% occasionally, and 36% never used LA for postoperative analgesia. 50% of all surgeons used lignocaine for local anesthesia (P < 0.0001) and infiltration (65% of all surgeons) was the most common method (P < 0.0001). Only 30% surgeons knew the correct duration of action of bupivacaine infiltration (P < 0.0001) and only 4% surgeons knew that LAs are antimicrobial (P < 0.0001). 53% of orthopedic surgeons used combination of lignocaine and bupivacaine, while 46% of general and 73% gynecologists surgeons used lignocaine more commonly. Only <5% of all surgeons had used long-acting liposomal bupivacaine and almost 40% more were willing to use the liposomal LA drug only if more evidence is available.


Although majority of surgeons were aware of the benefits of LA use for postoperative pain relief, reluctance, lack of knowledge of LA drugs and methods of LA use and fear of infection and wound healing are barriers for effective use of LA drugs for postoperative pain relief. Attending anesthesiologists must develop methods in the operating room to create awareness about the effectiveness of LA use for postoperative pain relief. Single-use vials or ampules of LA must be encouraged to LA use for postoperative analgesia, especially in the third-world countries.


Local anesthesia; pain relief; postoperative

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