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Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 9;9(1):14476. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50891-w.

Distinctive mutational spectrum and karyotype disruption in long-term cisplatin-treated urothelial carcinoma cell lines.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
2
Biological and Medical Research Center (BMFZ), Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
3
Institute for Human Genetics, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
4
Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. wolfgang.schulz@uni-duesseldorf.de.

Abstract

The DNA-damaging compound cisplatin is broadly employed for cancer chemotherapy. The mutagenic effects of cisplatin on cancer cell genomes are poorly studied and might even contribute to drug resistance. We have therefore analyzed mutations and chromosomal alterations in four cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cell lines (LTTs) by whole-exome-sequencing and array-CGH. 720-7479 genes in the LTTs contained point mutations, with a characteristic mutational signature. Only 53 genes were mutated in all LTTs, including the presumed cisplatin exporter ATP7B. Chromosomal alterations were characterized by segmented deletions and gains leading to severely altered karyotypes. The few chromosomal changes shared among LTTs included gains involving the anti-apoptotic BCL2L1 gene and losses involving the NRF2 regulator KEAP1. Overall, the extent of genomic changes paralleled cisplatin treatment concentrations. In conclusion, bladder cancer cell lines selected for cisplatin-resistance contain abundant and characteristic drug-induced genomic changes. Cisplatin treatment may therefore generate novel tumor genomes during patient treatment.

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