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Neurology. 2019 Oct 22;93(17):e1635-e1646. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008361. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Applying the ATN scheme in a memory clinic population: The ABIDE project.

Author information

1
From the Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology (D.A., A.d.W., R.O., W.P., F.B., C.G., I.v.M., M.Z., B.N.v.B., P.S., W.M.v.d.F.), Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine (R.O., C.G., M.Y., F.B., B.N.v.B.), and Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry (C.E.T.), Amsterdam Neuroscience, and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics (I.v.M., W.M.v.d.F.), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, the Netherlands; Laboratory of Neuroimaging of Aging (LANVIE) (D.A., G.B.F.), University of Geneva, Switzerland; Memory Clinic (D.A.), University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory of Alzheimer's Neuroimaging and Epidemiology (LANE) (D.A.), Saint John of God Clinical Research Centre; Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine (D.A.), University of Brescia, Italy; Clinical Memory Research Unit (R.O.), Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), UCL, London, UK; and Memory Clinic (D.A., G.B.F.), University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland.
2
From the Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology (D.A., A.d.W., R.O., W.P., F.B., C.G., I.v.M., M.Z., B.N.v.B., P.S., W.M.v.d.F.), Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine (R.O., C.G., M.Y., F.B., B.N.v.B.), and Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry (C.E.T.), Amsterdam Neuroscience, and Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics (I.v.M., W.M.v.d.F.), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, the Netherlands; Laboratory of Neuroimaging of Aging (LANVIE) (D.A., G.B.F.), University of Geneva, Switzerland; Memory Clinic (D.A.), University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory of Alzheimer's Neuroimaging and Epidemiology (LANE) (D.A.), Saint John of God Clinical Research Centre; Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine (D.A.), University of Brescia, Italy; Clinical Memory Research Unit (R.O.), Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Institutes of Neurology and Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), UCL, London, UK; and Memory Clinic (D.A., G.B.F.), University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland. wm.vdflier@amsterdamumc.nl.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To apply the ATN scheme to memory clinic patients, to assess whether it discriminates patient populations with specific features.

METHODS:

We included 305 memory clinic patients (33% subjective cognitive decline [SCD]: 60 ± 9 years, 61% M; 19% mild cognitive impairment [MCI]: 68 ± 9 years, 68% M; 48% dementia: 66 ± 10 years, 58% M) classified for positivity (±) of amyloid (A) ([18F]Florbetaben PET), tau (T) (CSF p-tau), and neurodegeneration (N) (medial temporal lobe atrophy). We assessed ATN profiles' demographic, clinical, and cognitive features at baseline, and cognitive decline over time.

RESULTS:

The proportion of A+T+N+ patients increased with syndrome severity (from 1% in SCD to 14% in MCI and 35% in dementia), while the opposite was true for A-T-N- (from 48% to 19% and 6%). Compared to A-T-N-, patients with the Alzheimer disease profiles (A+T+N- and A+T+N+) were older (both p < 0.05) and had a higher prevalence of APOE ε4 (both p < 0.05) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (both p < 0.05), memory (both p < 0.05), and visuospatial abilities (both p < 0.05) at baseline. Non-Alzheimer profiles A-T-N+ and A-T+N+ showed more severe white matter hyperintensities (both p < 0.05) and worse language performance (both p < 0.05) than A-T-N-. A linear mixed model showed faster decline on MMSE over time in A+T+N- and A+T+N+ (p = 0.059 and p < 0.001 vs A-T-N-), attributable mainly to patients without dementia.

CONCLUSIONS:

The ATN scheme identified different biomarker profiles with overlapping baseline features and patterns of cognitive decline. The large number of profiles, which may have different implications in patients with vs without dementia, poses a challenge to the application of the ATN scheme.

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