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Allergy. 2019 Oct 8. doi: 10.1111/all.14082. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent developments and highlights in food allergy.

Author information

1
Translational Medicine Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
2
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
3
Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, Departments of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
4
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.

Abstract

The achievement of long-lasting, safe treatments for food allergy is dependent on the understanding of the immunological basis of food allergy. Accurate diagnosis is essential for management. In recent years, data from oral food challenges have revealed that routine allergy testing is poor at predicting clinical allergy for tree nuts, almonds in particular. More advanced antigen-based tests including component-resolved diagnostics and epitope reactivity may lead to more accurate diagnosis and selection of therapeutic intervention. Additional diagnostic accuracy may come from cellular tests such as the basophil activation test or mast cell approaches. In the context of clinical trials, cellular tests have revealed specific T-cell and B-cell populations that are more abundant in food-allergic individuals with distinct mechanistic features. Awareness of clinical markers, such as the ability to eat baked forms of milk and egg, continues to inform the understanding of natural tolerance development. Mouse models have allowed for investigation into multiple mechanisms of food allergy including modification of epithelial metabolism, and the induction of regulatory cell subsets and the microbiome. Increasing numbers of children who underwent food immunotherapy enlarged the body of evidence on mechanisms and predictors of treatment success. Experimental immunological markers in conjunction with clinical determinants such as lower age and lower initial specific IgE appear to be of benefit. More research on the optimal dose, preparation, and route of application integrating a high-level safety and efficacy is demanded. Alternatively, biologics blocking TSLP, IL-33, IL-4 and IL-13, or IgE may help to achieve that.

KEYWORDS:

allergy treatment; biologics; food allergy; immune tolerance; immunotherapy

PMID:
31593325
DOI:
10.1111/all.14082

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