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Endocrinology. 2019 Dec 1;160(12):2969-2980. doi: 10.1210/en.2019-00321.

Endocrine Regulation of Epimorphic Regeneration.

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School of Biological Sciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.


Studies aiming to uncover primary mechanisms of regeneration have predominantly focused on genetic pathways regulating specific stages in the regeneration process: wound healing, blastema formation, and pattern formation. However, studies across organisms show that environmental conditions and the physiological state of the animal can affect the rate or quality of regeneration, and endocrine signals are likely the mediators of these effects. Endocrine signals acting directly on receptors expressed in the tissue or via neuroendocrine pathways can affect regeneration by regulating the immune response to injury, allocation of energetic resources, or by enhancing or inhibiting proliferation and differentiation pathways involved in regeneration. This review discusses the cumulative knowledge in the literature about endocrine regulation of regeneration and its importance in future research to advance biomedical research.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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