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Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Oct 7;11. doi: 10.18632/aging.102337. [Epub ahead of print]

Probucol, a "non-statin" cholesterol-lowering drug, ameliorates D-galactose induced cognitive deficits by alleviating oxidative stress via Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway in mice.

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Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Pharmacy School, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221004, China.
Scientific research center of traditional Chinese medicine, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi 530200, China.


Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the initiation and progression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Ameliorating oxidative damage is therefore considered as a beneficial strategy for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Probucol (Prob), a lipid-lowering prototype agent, was reported to treat cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. However, whether Prob has an effect on age-related neurodegenerative diseases remains unknown. In the study, it was found that Prob ameliorated D-galactose (D-gal) induced cognitive deficits and neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region. Moreover, Prob alleviated ROS and MDA levels by elevating SOD, GSH-PX and HO-1 mRNA and protein expressions, and improving plasmic and cerebral SOD and GSH-PX activities in D-gal treated mice. Furthermore, Prob promoted the dissociation of Keap1/Nrf2 complex leading to the accumulation of Nrf2 in nucleus, implying that the improved anti-oxidant property of Prob is mediated by Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. The study firstly demonstrates the favorable effects of Prob against cognitive impairments in a senescent mouse model, rendering this compound a promising agent for the treatment or prevention of age-related neurodegenerative disease.


Keap1/Nrf2 pathway; age-related neurodegenerative disease; oxidative stress; probucol

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