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Cureus. 2019 Aug 1;11(8):e5294. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5294.

Disseminated Nocardiosis: A Case Report.

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Serviço De Medicina 2, Hospital De Santa Maria, Lisboa, PRT.
Serviço De Doenças Infecciosas, Hospital De Santa Maria, Lisboa, PRT.


Disseminated nocardiosis is a rare infection associated with underlying immunosuppression, and patients usually have some identifiable risk factor affecting cellular immunity. Due to advances in taxonomy and microbiology identification methods, infections by Nocardia species are more frequent, making the discussion of its approach and choice of antibiotherapy increasingly relevant. A 77-year-old man presented to the emergency department with marked pain on the right lower limb, weakness, and upper leg edema. He had been diagnosed with organized cryptogenic pneumonia one year before and was chronically immunosuppressed with methylprednisolone 32 mg/day. Blood cultures isolated Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. Computed tomography revealed a gas collection in the region of the right iliacus muscle with involvement of the gluteal and obturator muscles upwardly and on the supragenicular plane inferiorly. Triple therapy with imipenem, amikacin, and cotrimoxazole was started, and the patient was submitted for emergent surgical decompression, fasciotomy, and drainage due to acute compartment syndrome. The patient had a good outcome and was discharged from the hospital after 30 days of intravenous therapy. This case illustrates the severity of Nocardia infection and highlights the need for a meticulous approach in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.


immunosuppression; nocardia; nocardia infection

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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