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Vet Microbiol. 2019 Oct;237:108401. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108401. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Evaluation of CpG-ODN-adjuvanted polyanhydride-based intranasal influenza nanovaccine in pigs.

Author information

1
Food Animal Health Research Program (FAHRP), Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691, USA.
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
3
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
4
Food Animal Health Research Program (FAHRP), Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, 44691, USA. Electronic address: gourapura.1@osu.edu.

Abstract

Influenza results in significant economic loss in the swine industry each year. A broadly protective swine influenza vaccine would have the dual benefit of protecting pigs from influenza A viruses (IAVs) and limiting their possible zoonotic transmission to humans. In this study, we developed polyanhydride nanoparticles-based swine influenza vaccine (KAg + CpG-nanovaccine) co-encapsulating inacticated/killed soluble antigen (KAg) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 agonist (CpG-ODN). The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of KAg + CpG-nanovaccine was compared with KAg vaccine containing five-times greater quantity of antigens following heterologous virus challenge. Prime-boost intranasally delivered KAg + CpG-nanovaccine induced significantly higher levels of cross-reactive antigen-specific IgA antibody responses in the nasal cavity, greater lymphoproliferative response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and higher IFN-γ secretion during antigen-induced recall responses of PBMCs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes cells compared to those immunized with KAg alone. Importantly, KAg + CpG-nanovaccine provided better protective efficacy through a significant reduction in influenza-induced fever, 16-fold reduction of nasal virus shedding and 80-fold reduction in lung virus titers compared to those immunized with soluble KAg. Our results indicated that CpG-ODN-adjuvanted polyanhydride nanovaccine can induce higher mucosal antibody and cellular immune responses in pigs; and provide better protection as compared with intranasally delivered soluble KAg.

KEYWORDS:

CpG-ODN; Intranasal vaccine; Pigs; Polyanhydride nanoparticles; Swine influenza A virus

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