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J Athl Train. 2019 Oct 4. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-455-18. [Epub ahead of print]

Relationship Between the King-Devick Test and Commonly Used Concussion Tests at Baseline.

Author information

1
Department of Community Health and Family Medicine, Department of Neurology, and Division of Sports Health, University Athletic Association.
2
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
3
Department of Athletic Training, Miami Dolphins, National Football League, Davie, FL.
4
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA.
5
Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark.
6
Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens.
7
Seattle Children's Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics.
8
School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University, Normal.
9
Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.
10
Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.
11
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
12
School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
13
Department of Kinesiology and Recreation Administration, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Comprehensive assessments are recommended to evaluate sport-related concussion (SRC). The degree to which the King-Devick (KD) test adds novel information to an SRC evaluation is unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe relationships at baseline among the KD and other SRC assessments and explore whether the KD provides unique information to a multimodal baseline concussion assessment.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Five National Collegiate Athletic Association institutions participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (N = 2258, age = 20 ± 1.5 years, 53.0% male, 68.9% white) in 11 men's and 13 women's sports.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Participants completed baseline assessments on the KD and (1) the Symptom Inventory of the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-3rd edition, (2) the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, (3) the Balance Error Scoring System, (4) the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), (5) the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery, and (6) the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening tool during their first year in CARE. Correlation coefficients between the KD and the 6 other concussion assessments in isolation were determined. Assessments with ρ magnitude >0.1 were included in a multivariate linear regression analysis to evaluate their relative association with the KD.

RESULTS:

Scores for SAC concentration, ImPACT visual motor speed, and ImPACT reaction time were correlated with the KD (ρ = -0.216, -0.276, and 0.164, respectively) and were thus included in the regression model, which explained 16.8% of the variance in baseline KD time (P < .001, Cohen f2 = 0.20). Better SAC concentration score (β = -.174, P < .001), ImPACT visual motor speed (β = -.205, P < .001) and ImPACT reaction time (β = .056, P = .020) were associated with faster baseline KD performance, but the effect sizes were small.

CONCLUSIONS:

Better performance on cognitive measures involving concentration, visual motor speed, and reaction time was weakly associated with better baseline KD performance. Symptoms, psychological distress, balance, and vestibular-oculomotor provocation were unrelated to KD performance at baseline. The findings indicate limited overlap at baseline among the CARE SRC assessments and the KD.

KEYWORDS:

balance; cognition; oculomotor evaluation; rapid number naming; saccades; symptoms; vestibular system

PMID:
31584854
DOI:
10.4085/1062-6050-455-18

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