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Mov Disord. 2019 Oct 4. doi: 10.1002/mds.27865. [Epub ahead of print]

Exercise increases caudate dopamine release and ventral striatal activation in Parkinson's disease.

Author information

1
Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre, Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia & Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Brain Behaviour Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
5
School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on evoked dopamine release and activity of the ventral striatum using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS:

Thirty-five participants were randomly allocated to a 36-session aerobic exercise or control intervention. Each participant underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while playing a reward task before and after the intervention to determine the effect of exercise on the activity of the ventral striatum in anticipation of reward. A subset of participants (n = 25) completed [11 C] raclopride positron emission tomography scans to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked release of endogenous dopamine in the dorsal striatum. All participants completed motor (MDS-UPDRS part III, finger tapping, Timed-up-and-go) and nonmotor assessments (Starkstein Apathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, reaction time, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Trail Making Test [A and B], and Montreal Cognitive Assessment) before and after the interventions.

RESULTS:

The aerobic group exhibited increased activity in the ventral striatum during functional magnetic resonance imaging in anticipation of 75% probability of reward (P = 0.01). The aerobic group also demonstrated increased repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (P = 0.04) and increased baseline nondisplaceable binding potential in the posterior putamen of the less affected repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-stimulated hemisphere measured by position emission tomography (P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS:

Aerobic exercise alters the responsivity of the ventral striatum, likely related to changes to the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, and increases evoked dopamine release in the caudate nucleus. This suggests that the therapeutic benefits of exercise are in part related to corticostriatal plasticity and enhanced dopamine release. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson's disease; dopamine release; exercise; function magnetic resonance imaging; positron emission tomography

PMID:
31584222
DOI:
10.1002/mds.27865

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