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Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Oct 4. doi: 10.1007/s10571-019-00741-0. [Epub ahead of print]

Elucidating Critical Proteinopathic Mechanisms and Potential Drug Targets in Neurodegeneration.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.
3
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.
4
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. showkatganie@kashmiruniversity.ac.in.

Abstract

Neurodegeneration entails progressive loss of neuronal structure as well as function leading to cognitive failure, apathy, anxiety, irregular body movements, mood swing and ageing. Proteomic dysregulation is considered the key factor for neurodegeneration. Mechanisms involving deregulated processing of proteins such as amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomerization; tau hyperphosphorylation, prion misfolding; α-synuclein accumulation/lewy body formation, chaperone deregulation, acetylcholine depletion, adenosine 2A (A2A) receptor hyperactivation, secretase deregulation, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation and mitochondrial proteinopathies have deeper implications in neurodegenerative disorders. Better understanding of such pathological mechanisms is pivotal for exploring crucial drug targets. Herein, we provide a comprehensive outlook about the diverse proteomic irregularities in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD). We explicate the role of key neuroproteomic drug targets notably Aβ, tau, alpha synuclein, prions, secretases, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), LRRK2, molecular chaperones, A2A receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs) and mitochondrial/oxidative stress-related proteins for combating neurodegeneration and associated cognitive and motor impairment. Cross talk between amyloidopathy, synucleinopathy, tauopathy and several other proteinopathies pinpoints the need to develop safe therapeutics with ability to strike multiple targets in the aetiology of the neurodegenerative disorders. Therapeutics like microtubule stabilisers, chaperones, kinase inhibitors, anti-aggregation agents and antibodies could serve promising regimens for treating neurodegeneration. However, drugs should be target specific, safe and able to penetrate blood-brain barrier.

KEYWORDS:

Chaperones; Drug targets; Free radicals; Mitophagy; Neurodegeneration

PMID:
31584139
DOI:
10.1007/s10571-019-00741-0

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