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Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Oct 1;7(4). pii: E137. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040137.

Seroepidemiology of Measles, Mumps and Rubella on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba: The First Population-Based Serosurveillance Study in Caribbean Netherlands.

Author information

1
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. eric.vos.02@rivm.nl.
2
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. liesbeth.mollema@rivm.nl.
3
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. rob.van.binnendijk@rivm.nl.
4
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. irene.veldhuijzen@rivm.nl.
5
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. gaby.smits@rivm.nl.
6
Department of Public Health, Public Entity Bonaire, Kaya Neerlandia 41, Kralendijk Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands, The Netherlands. alcira.jansen@bonairegov.com.
7
Department of Public Health, Public Entity St. Eustatius, Cottageroad z/n, Oranjestad, St. Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands, The Netherlands. s.baboe-kalpoe@statiagov.com.
8
Department of Public Health, Public Entity Saba, The Bottom, Saba, Caribbean Netherlands, The Netherlands. koen.hulshof@sabagov.com.
9
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. fiona.van.der.klis@rivm.nl.
10
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. hester.de.melker@rivm.nl.

Abstract

The National Immunization Program (NIP) on Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba (i.e., Caribbean Netherlands (CN)) includes the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine since 1988/89. Seroepidemiological data is an important tool to evaluate the NIP, hence a cross-sectional representative population-based serosurveillance study was conducted for the first time in CN in mid-2017. Participants (n = 1829, aged 0-90 years) donated a blood sample and completed a health-related questionnaire. MMR-specific IgG antibodies were determined using a bead-based multiplex immunoassay and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression models. Overall seroprevalence was high for measles (94%), but lower for mumps and rubella (both 85%). In NIP eligibles, including women of childbearing age, rubella seroprevalence (88%) exceeded the threshold for protection (85%); however, for measles (89%) this protective level (95%) was not met. MMR seropositivity was lowest in children who became CN resident at 11-17 years of age (especially for measles (72%)), mostly originating from Latin America and other non-Western countries. Interestingly, rubella seroprevalence was lowest in non-NIP eligible adults from Dutch overseas territories and Suriname (75%). Taken together, MMR immunity is generally good in CN, nonetheless some risk groups were identified. Additionally, we found evidence for a unique island epidemiology. In light of recent regional measles outbreaks, disease monitoring remains of utmost importance.

KEYWORDS:

Bonaire; Caribbean Netherlands; MMR vaccination; Saba; St. Eustatius; measles; mumps; rubella; seroepidemiology

PMID:
31581508
DOI:
10.3390/vaccines7040137
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Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

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