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S D Med. 2019 Sep;72(9):414-417.

Use of Midazolam for Minimal Sedation in Pediatric Outpatients: A Survey Analysis of Patient Experience and Parent-Guardian Satisfaction.

Author information

University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of Iowa Health Care, Iowa City, Iowa.
Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.
Alaska Family Medicine Residency Program, Anchorage, Alaska.
Sanford Children's Specialty Clinic, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.



Use of procedural sedation to promote anxiolysis, analgesia, and amnesia enhances both pediatric patient experience and procedural outcomes. Sanford Children's outpatient sedation clinic currently uses oral midazolam for minimal sedation.


A research survey was designed to evaluate parent/guardian satisfaction with midazolam for pediatric sedation in simple outpatient procedures including, bot linum toxin injections, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and intravenous line placement. Parents'/ guardians' understanding of the sedation and procedural logistics were surveyed and their satisfaction with the child's comfort, recovery time, and overall satisfaction were assessed. Each component was rated on a scale of 1-10, 1 being not satisfied and 10 as extremely satisfied.


The study was conducted at a single pediatric outpatient center. Forty-one parents/guardians of patients aged 22 months-17 years were recruited; of these, 41 consented and enrolled in the study. Average age was 6.1 years with 22 females and 19 males. Of the surveys collected, 30 were botulinum toxin injections, eight VCUG, one contrast enema, and two were not recorded. Mean survey results were 8.7 (95 percent CI, 8.2-9.2) for satisfaction of recovery time, 8.0 (95 percent CI, 7.4-8.6) for control of discomfort and 8.4 (95 percent CI, 7.9-8.9) for overall satisfaction.


When evaluating midazolam as a sedation agent in pediatric procedures, parents/guardians were most satisfied with the duration of recovery and had the lowest satisfaction on control of the patient's discomfort. Overall, it can be concluded that midazolam is a moderately good agent for pediatric patients receiving minimal sedation, with the greatest satisfaction in the duration of recovery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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