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J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2019;11(3):244-247. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2019.40. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of pleural effusion in the north-west of Iran.

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Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Connective Tissue Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Introduction: Pleural effusion (PE) is a common manifestation of pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases, and the first step for diagnosing the etiology is analysis of pleural fluid. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of PE in a tertiary referral hospital in the North-West of Iran. Methods: All patients with PE who referred to the department of pulmonary diseases in tertiary centre of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between 2015 and 2016 were enrolled. Complete enumeration method used for selection of patients. Required information including clinical findings, PE location, fluid appearance, and biochemical characteristics were recorded using a checklist and analyzed via appropriate statistical methods. Results: A total of 223 patients were included in this study. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause of PE (n=67), followed by pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant diseases. PE fluid in all patients with CHF was transudative. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, CHF was the most prevalent cause of PE.


Exudates and Transudates; Heart Failure; Pleural Effusion; Tuberculosis

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