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J Lab Physicians. 2019 Jul-Sep;11(3):192-199. doi: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_5_19.

Study of vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant Enterococcus species and evaluation of a rapid spot test for enterococci from Central Referral Hospital, Sikkim, India.

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Department of Microbiology, Central Referral Hospital, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Tadong, Sikkim, India.



Enterococcus is an important pathogen, and with its emergence of resistance to multiple antimicrobials, the management of infection is becoming increasingly difficult.


The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and risk factors associated with enterococcal infection or colonization.


In this prospective study, samples from inpatients were screened for resistant enterococci. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by the agar dilution method. A modification of a test tube method of sodium chloride-esculin hydrolysis to a spot test was evaluated for its rapidity and reliability in the presumptive diagnosis of enterococci.


Fisher's exact test was used for continuous (Student's t-test) and categorical variables. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic regression using IBM SPSS 20.0 software (Armonk, NY, USA).


Enterococcus species were isolated from 182 samples: Enterococcus faecalis (68.7%), Enterococcus faecium (20.9%), Enterococcus gallinarum (6%), and Enterococcus durans (4.4%). Maximum resistance was to ciprofloxacin (59.3%) and least to linezolid (0.5%). The isolation rate of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was 13.7%; 30.2% and 20.9% were of high-level gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively. All 182 Enterococcus species gave positive results within 30-60 min by the rapid spot test.


Overall, high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was observed more than glycopeptide resistance. Surveillance strategies need to be upgraded and implemented in order to prevent the emergence and further spread of not only VRE but also HLAR enterococci in the hospital. The spot test gave reliable and rapid results in presumptive identification of enterococci.


Enterococcus; high-level aminoglycoside resistance; rapid spot test; vancomycin-resistant enterococci

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