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Curr Urol. 2019 Sep;13(1):7-12. doi: 10.1159/000499301. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor: Reviewing a Cryptic Cause of Surgically Correctable Hypertension.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook Renaissance University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
2
Medical Student Research Institute, St. George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook Southampton Hospital, Southampton, NY.
4
Foley Plaza Medical, New York, NY.
5
Department of Urology, Stony Brook Renaissance University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Abstract

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT), or reninoma, is a typically benign neoplasm generally affecting adolescents and young adults due to modified smooth muscle cells from the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Patients experience symptoms related to hypertension and hypoka-lemia due to renin-secretion by the tumor. MRI, PET, CT, and renal vein catheterizations can be used to capture JGCTs, with laparoscopic ultrasonography being most cost-efective. Surgical removal is the best option for management; electrolyte imbalances are a potential complication which may be assuaged via pre-surgical administration of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor. Considering the vast etiology for hypertension and rarity of JGCT, the diagnosing physician must have a high index of suspicion for JGCT. Early recognition and management can help prevent cardiovascular or pregnancy complications and fatalities, vascular invasion and metastasis, improve quality of life, and limit socioeconomic liabilities. Herein we review the epidemiology, genetics, histopathol-ogy, clinical presentation, and management of this rare condition. The impact of genetics on prognosis warrant further research.

KEYWORDS:

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor; Partial nephrectomy; Renin; Reninoma; Secondary hypertension

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