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J Immunol. 2019 Nov 15;203(10):2588-2601. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1801200. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-δ Acts within Peripheral Myeloid Cells to Limit Th Cell Priming during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.
Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada.
Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada.
Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612.
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada;
Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8, Canada; and.
Women's College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1N8, Canada.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ is a fatty acid-activated transcription factor that regulates metabolic homeostasis, cell growth, and differentiation. Previously, we reported that mice with a global deficiency of PPAR-δ develop an exacerbated course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), highlighting a role for this nuclear receptor in limiting the development of CNS inflammation. However, the cell-specific contribution of PPAR-δ to the more severe CNS inflammatory response remained unclear. In this study, we studied the specific involvement of PPAR-δ in myeloid cells during EAE using mice that had Cre-mediated excision of floxed Ppard driven by the lysozyme M (LysM) promoter (LysM Cre :Ppard fl/fl). We observed that LysM Cre :Ppard fl/fl mice were more susceptible to EAE and developed a more severe course of this disease compared with Ppard fl/fl controls. The more severe EAE in LysM Cre :Ppard fl/fl mice was associated with an increased accumulation of pathogenic CD4+ T cells in the CNS and enhanced myelin-specific Th1 and Th17 responses in the periphery. Adoptive transfer EAE studies linked this EAE phenotype in LysM Cre :Ppard fl/fl mice to heightened Th responses. Furthermore, studies using an in vitro CD11b+ cell:Th cell coculture system revealed that CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) from LysM Cre :Ppard fl/fl mice had a heightened capacity to prime myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific Th cells compared with Ppard fl/fl counterparts; the effects of DC on Th1 cytokine production were mediated through production of the IL-12p40 homodimer. These studies revealed a role for PPAR-δ in DC in limiting Th cell priming during EAE.


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