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N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 2. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1906661. [Epub ahead of print]

Targeted Temperature Management for Cardiac Arrest with Nonshockable Rhythm.

Author information

1
From Médecine Intensive Réanimation, University Hospital Center, Nantes (J.-B.L., N.B., J.R.), the Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, INSERM Unité 970 (J.-B.L., A.C.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, Cochin University Hospital Center (A.C.), and the AfterROSC Network (J.-B.L., A.C., N.P., S.L.), Paris, Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Médecine (H.M.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation (H.M.), and Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1260, Regenerative Nano Medecine, INSERM, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg (H.M.), Strasbourg, INSERM Centres d'Investigation Clinique (CIC) 1415, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Tours (A.L.G., B.G.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center (P.-F.D.), INSERM UMR 1100-Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires, Tours University (P.-F.D.), and Université de Tours (B.G.), Tours, the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, District Hospital Center, La Roche-sur-Yon (G.C.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, South Brittany General Hospital Center, Lorient (G.G.), Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lille, and Université de Lille, Faculté de Médicine, Lille (P.G.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center, Clermond-Ferrand (E.C.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, Regional Hospital Center, Orleans (T.B.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center, INSERM CIC 1402, Équipe ALIVE, and Université de Poitiers, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Poitiers, Poitiers (J.-P.F.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center, Angers (P.A.), Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, University Hospital Center, and CIC 1435, University Hospital Center, Limoges (N.P.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Le Mans (M.L.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Argenteuil (G.P.), the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center, Dijon (J.-P.Q.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Roanne (J.-C.C.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Annecy (M.S.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Versailles Hospital, Versailles (S.L.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Saint Brieuc (J.L.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Lens (D.T.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Angouleme (A. Desachy), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Rodez (A. Delahaye), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Saint Malo (V.B.), the Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital Center, Montauban (S.V.), and the Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Center, Point-a-Pitre (F.M.) - all in France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Moderate therapeutic hypothermia is currently recommended to improve neurologic outcomes in adults with persistent coma after resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of moderate therapeutic hypothermia in patients with nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity) is debated.

METHODS:

We performed an open-label, randomized, controlled trial comparing moderate therapeutic hypothermia (33°C during the first 24 hours) with targeted normothermia (37°C) in patients with coma who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after resuscitation from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm. The primary outcome was survival with a favorable neurologic outcome, assessed on day 90 after randomization with the use of the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating greater disability). We defined a favorable neurologic outcome as a CPC score of 1 or 2. Outcome assessment was blinded. Mortality and safety were also assessed.

RESULTS:

From January 2014 through January 2018, a total of 584 patients from 25 ICUs underwent randomization, and 581 were included in the analysis (3 patients withdrew consent). On day 90, a total of 29 of 284 patients (10.2%) in the hypothermia group were alive with a CPC score of 1 or 2, as compared with 17 of 297 (5.7%) in the normothermia group (difference, 4.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 8.9; P = 0.04). Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (81.3% and 83.2%, respectively; difference, -1.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.0 to 4.3). The incidence of prespecified adverse events did not differ significantly between groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among patients with coma who had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm, moderate therapeutic hypothermia at 33°C for 24 hours led to a higher percentage of patients who survived with a favorable neurologic outcome at day 90 than was observed with targeted normothermia. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; HYPERION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01994772.).

PMID:
31577396
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1906661

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