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Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Sep;98(39):e16976. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000016976.

Evaluation of halitosis in adult patients after treatment with photodynamic therapy associated with periodontal treatment: Protocol for a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial with 3-month follow up.

Author information

Postgraduate program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho, UNINOVE.
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo.
Assistant Professor of Specialization in Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology at Fundecto - FFO, School of Dentistry - FOUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.



Halitosis is an unpleasant odor that emanates from the mouth. Studies show halitosis returns in a week, after treatment with PDT. Probably, bacteria living in the periodontal sulcus could recolonize the dorsum of the tongue. Until nowadays, there are no study in adult population that associates halitosis and periodontal treatment with follow-up evaluation. The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial is to treat oral halitosis in healthy adults with photodynamic therapy (PDT), associated with periodontal treatment and follow them up for 3 months. PATIENT CONCERNS:: the concerns assessments will be done over the study using anamnesis interviews and specific questionnaire. DIAGNOSES:: halitosis will be evaluated by OralChroma.


The participants (n = 40) with halitosis will be randomized into 2 groups: G1-treatment with PDT (n = 20) or G2-cleaning of the tongue with a tongue scraper (n = 20).


Halitosis will be evaluated by measuring volatile sulfur compounds using gas chromatography. After the treatments, a second evaluation will be performed, along with a microbiological analysis (RT-PCR) for the identification of the bacteria T. denticola. The assessment of halitosis and the microbiological analysis will be repeated. After that, patients will receive periodontal treatment. The participants will return after 1 week and 3 months for an additional evaluation. Quality of life will be measured by Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14).


This protocol will determine the effectiveness of phototherapy regarding the reduction of halitosis in adults. NCT03996915.


This protocol received approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee of Universidade Nove de Julho (certificate number: 3.257.104). The data will be published in a peer-reviewed periodical.

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