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Phys Rev E. 2019 Aug;100(2-1):023205. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.023205.

Single-particle velocity distributions of collisionless, steady-state plasmas must follow superstatistics.

Davis S1,2, Avaria G1,2, Bora B1,2, Jain J1, Moreno J1,2, Pavez C1,2, Soto L1,2.

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Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago, Chile.
Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Sazié 2212, piso 7, 8370136 Santiago, Chile.


The correct modeling of velocity distribution functions for particles in steady-state plasmas is a central element in the study of nuclear fusion and also in the description of space plasmas. In this paper, a statistical mechanical formalism for the description of collisionless plasmas in a steady state is presented, based solely on the application of the rules of probability and not relying on the concept of entropy. Beck and Cohen's superstatistical framework [Beck and Cohen, Physica A 322, 267 (2003)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/S0378-4371(03)00019-0] is recovered as a limiting case, and a "microscopic" definition of inverse temperature β is given. Nonextensivity is not invoked a priori but enters the picture only through the analysis of correlations between parts of the system.

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