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J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. 2019 Oct-Dec;24(4):237-246. doi: 10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_77_18.

Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Therapy in Pediatric Urology.

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Department of Pediatric Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.


The rapidly expanding field of tissue engineering along with stem cell therapy has a promising future in pediatric urological conditions. The initial struggle seemed difficult in renal regeneration but a functional biounit has been developed. Urine excretion has been demonstrated successfully from stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys. Three-dimensional (3D) stem cell-derived organoids are the new paradigm in research. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and the urethra is close behind. 3D bioprinted urethras would soon be available. Artificial germ cells produced from mouse pluripotent stem cells have been shown to give rise to live progeny. Myoblast and fibroblast therapy has been safely and effectively used for urinary incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence has been clinically treated with muscle-derived stem cells. Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells have been shown to get converted into smooth muscle cells when implanted into the corpora cavernosa in animal models. This review encompasses the various experimental and clinical developments in this field that can benefit pediatric urological conditions with the contemporary developments in the field.


Bone marrow cells; cell therapy; nanotechnology

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