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Neural Regen Res. 2020 Mar;15(3):390-393. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.266052.

Dopamine as a growth differentiation factor in the mammalian brain.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Nutritional Brain Science, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Abstract

The catecholamine, dopamine, plays an important role in the central nervous system of mammals, including executive functions, motor control, motivation, arousal, reinforcement, and reward. Dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system lead to diseases of the brains, such as Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, and schizophrenia. In addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, there is evidence for a role as a growth differentiation factor during development. Recent studies suggest that dopamine regulates the development of γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. Moreover, in adult brains, dopamine increases the production of new neurons in the hippocampus, suggesting the promoting effect of dopamine on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and progenitor cells in the adult brains. In this mini-review, I center my attention on dopaminergic functions in the cortical interneurons during development and further discuss cell therapy against neurodegenerative diseases.

KEYWORDS:

GABA; adult neurogenesis; cerebral cortex; dopamine; medial ganglionic eminence; migration; striatum; γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneuron

PMID:
31571646
DOI:
10.4103/1673-5374.266052
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