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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019 Oct 7:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2019.1674804. [Epub ahead of print]

Obstetric outcomes among women with a liver transplant.

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Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University , New York , NY , USA.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University , New York , NY , USA.


Background: Women with liver transplants may be at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate trends and provide recent data on outcomes for women with a liver transplant. Study design: The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from 1998 to 2014 was used for this repeated cross-sectional analysis. Women aged between 15 and 54 years, with a history of liver transplant who underwent delivery, antepartum, or postpartum hospitalizations were identified. Temporal trends in deliveries of women with liver transplants were analyzed. The risk for severe maternal morbidity (SMM) excluding transfusion based on criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as for individual outcomes including hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, placental abruption, liver rejection, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery, and coagulopathy during delivery hospitalizations were analyzed. Risks of SMM during antepartum and postpartum hospitalizations were also analyzed. An adjusted log-linear regression model for SMM during delivery hospitalizations including demographic factors, hospital characteristics, and underlying comorbidity was performed. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons. Temporal trends were analyzed with the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Population weights were applied to create national estimates. Results: From 1998 to 2014, an estimated 1165 births occurred by women with a liver transplant. The number of births occurring by women with liver transplants increased over the study period from 1.0 per 100,000 in 1998-2000 to 2.8 per 100,000 in 2012-2014 (p < .01). The risk for CDC SMM excluding transfusion was significantly higher during delivery hospitalizations among women with compared to without liver transplant (8.0 versus 0.5%, p < .01, unadjusted risk ratio 15.4, 95% CI 12.7-18.6). Women with liver transplant were also at significantly higher risk for abruption (2.5 versus 1.0%, p = .03), hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (27.8 versus 6.9%, p < .01), postpartum hemorrhage (8.0 versus 2.8%, p = .01), cesarean delivery (51.7 versus 29.5%, p < .01), preterm delivery (27.5 versus 7.0%, p < .01), and coagulopathy (3.1 versus 0.3%, p < .01). A diagnosis of liver rejection was present during 4.1% of delivery hospitalizations for women with liver transplant. In the adjusted analysis for severe morbidity excluding transfusion risk was retained with liver transplant associated with increased likelihood of this adverse outcome (aRR 8.49, 95% CI 5.59-12.87). Women with liver transplants were at significantly higher likelihood of undergoing antepartum and postpartum admissions, and of experiencing SMM during these hospitalizations. Conclusion: In this analysis of antepartum, delivery, and postpartum hospitalizations, women with liver transplant were at significantly higher risk for both SMM during all hospitalizations and for a range of adverse outcomes including placental abruption, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, and coagulopathy delivery during delivery hospitalizations. While deliveries to women with liver transplant were rare, these births became more frequent over the study period.


Liver transplant; maternal outcomes; maternal safety; organ transplant pregnancy; severe maternal morbidity

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