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JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2019 Oct 28;12(20):2093-2101. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2019.06.036. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Artificial Intelligence for Aortic Pressure Waveform Analysis During Coronary Angiography: Machine Learning for Patient Safety.

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Department of Cardiology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands.
Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Department of Cardiology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Cardiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Cardiology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:



This study developed a neural network to perform automated pressure waveform analysis and allow real-time accurate identification of damping.


Damping of aortic pressure during coronary angiography must be identified to avoid serious complications and make accurate coronary physiology measurements. There are currently no automated methods to do this, and so identification of damping requires constant monitoring, which is prone to human error.


The neural network was trained and tested versus core laboratory expert opinions derived from 2 separate datasets. A total of 5,709 aortic pressure waveforms of individual heart beats were extracted and classified. The study developed a recurrent convolutional neural network to classify beats as either normal, showing damping, or artifactual. Accuracies were reported using the opinions of 2 independent core laboratories.


The neural network was 99.4% accurate (95% confidence interval: 98.8% to 99.6%) at classifying beats from the testing dataset when judged against the opinions of the internal core laboratory. It was 98.7% accurate (95% confidence interval: 98.0% to 99.2%) when judged against the opinions of an external core laboratory not involved in neural network training. The neural network was 100% sensitive, with no beats classified as damped misclassified, with a specificity of 99.8%. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were 98.1% and 99.5%. The 2 core laboratories agreed more closely with the neural network than with each other.


Arterial waveform analysis using neural networks allows rapid and accurate identification of damping. This demonstrates how machine learning can assist with patient safety and the quality control of procedures.


artificial intelligence; coronary angiography; machine learning; neural networks


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