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Acta Paediatr. 2020 Mar;109(3):460-470. doi: 10.1111/apa.15035. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Review on long-term non-renal complications of childhood nephrotic syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
2
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
5
Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
6
Department of Pediatrics, University Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular childhood disease. A body of literature has described the long-term renal prognosis of childhood-onset idiopathic NS. However, the nonrenal outcomes have not been studied as much.

AIM:

We aimed to discuss the long-term non-renal outcomes of childhood NS, highlighting studies with a follow-up period of more than 10 years.

RESULTS:

We reviewed the literature and found that a number of immunosuppressive agents have stopped inflammation, stabilised the podocyte cytoskeleton and reduce proteinuria. However, prolonged treatment has frequently been associated with a high risk of renal and non-renal complications in patients with a complicated disease course, defined as frequent relapses or steroid dependency. Non-renal complications may include impaired longitudinal growth and pubertal development, undesirable fertility outcomes, ocular complications, bone mineral diseases and potential malignancies.

CONCLUSION:

This review discusses and summarises the non-renal outcomes of idiopathic childhood NS.

KEYWORDS:

long-term; morbidity; nephrotic syndrome; non-renal complications; prognosis; quality of life

PMID:
31561270
DOI:
10.1111/apa.15035

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