Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 Oct;3(10):1464-1473. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0983-2. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Convergent evolution of a vertebrate-like methylome in a marine sponge.

Author information

1
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. alex.demendoza@uwa.edu.au.
2
Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. alex.demendoza@uwa.edu.au.
3
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
4
Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
5
Genomics and Epigenetics Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
6
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
7
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
8
Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
9
Department for Molecular Evolution and Development, Centre of Organismal Systems Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
10
Australian Research Council Centre for Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
11
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ryan.lister@uwa.edu.au.
12
Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ryan.lister@uwa.edu.au.

Abstract

Vertebrates have highly methylated genomes at CpG positions, whereas invertebrates have sparsely methylated genomes. This increase in methylation content is considered a major regulatory innovation of vertebrate genomes. However, here we report that a sponge, proposed as the potential sister group to the rest of animals, has a highly methylated genome. Despite major differences in genome size and architecture, we find similarities between the independent acquisitions of the hypermethylated state. Both lineages show genome-wide CpG depletion, conserved strong transcription factor methyl-sensitivity and developmental methylation dynamics at 5-hydroxymethylcytosine enriched regions. Together, our findings trace back patterns associated with DNA methylation in vertebrates to the early steps of animal evolution. Thus, the sponge methylome challenges previous hypotheses concerning the uniqueness of vertebrate genome hypermethylation and its implications for regulatory complexity.

PMID:
31558833
PMCID:
PMC6783312
DOI:
10.1038/s41559-019-0983-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center