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J Biol Chem. 1985 Feb 10;260(3):1682-7.

Phosphorylation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and modulation of its enzymic activity by calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase.


A calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) catalyzes the phosphorylation of both insoluble microsomal (Mr approximately 100,000) and purified soluble (Mr = 53,000) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. The phosphorylation and concomitant inactivation of enzymic activity of HMG-CoA reductase was absolutely dependent on Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diolein. Dephosphorylation of phosphorylated HMG-CoA reductase was associated with the loss of protein bound radioactivity and reactivation of enzymic activity. Maximal phosphorylation of purified HMG-CoA reductase was associated with the incorporation of 1.05 +/- 0.016 mol of phosphate/mol of native form of HMG-CoA reductase (Mr approximately 100,000). The apparent Km for purified HMG-CoA reductase and histone H1 was 0.08 mg/ml, and 0.12 mg/ml, respectively. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated the protein kinase C-catalyzed phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase. Increased phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate suggests a possible in vivo protein kinase C-mediated mechanism for the short-term regulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The identification of the protein kinase C system in addition to the reductase kinase-reductase kinase kinase bicyclic cascade systems for the modulation of the enzymic activity of HMG-CoA reductase may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis.

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