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Kardiol Pol. 2019 Oct 25;77(10):908-917. doi: 10.33963/KP.14986. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

The role of arginine vasopressin in myocardial infarction and reperfusion.

Author information

1
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
2
Department of Cardiology,Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
3
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Electronic address: ioakim.spyridopoulos@newcastle.ac.uk
4
Department of Cardiology,Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Electronic address: ioakim.spyridopoulos@newcastle.ac.uk

Abstract

Little attention is paid to the coronary microvasculature when treating acute myocardial infarction (MI). Microvascular obstruction (MVO) contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury, which hampers distal blood flow to the myocardium despite recanalization of the culprit epicardial vessel. One of the mechanisms behind reperfusion injury is MVO due to persistent vasoconstrictor tone during reperfusion. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone with prominent vasoactive effects on the coronary microvessels. Its levels are elevated as part of a stress response triggered by MI, which was shown to exert vasoconstrictive effects on the coronary arteries in preclinical models, mainly in the nonepicardial vessels of the microcirculation. Circulating AVP levels are up to 100‑fold higher in MI and do not immediately decrease to baseline levels on reperfusion. This results in the so called coronary slow flow phenomenon and mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recently, the C‑terminal fragment of preprovasopressin, copeptin, has emerged as a surrogate biomarker for AVP, as it is more stable in the circulation. Multiple studies have shown the predictive value of both AVP and copeptin with regards to long‑term prognoses of MI patients. We propose that both AVP and copeptin have more than just a predictive value but also play a role in the pathophysiology of adverse outcome post‑MI. Therefore, the treatment of choice for MI should not only focus on the epicardial vessel but also on targeting MVO that might pre‑exist or might directly follow reperfusion. This mandates a clinical trial with an AVP‑receptor antagonist in patients with acute MI undergoing reperfusion therapy.

PMID:
31553327
DOI:
10.33963/KP.14986
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