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Med Gas Res. 2019 Jul-Sep;9(3):127-132. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.266987.

Hydrogen inhibits microglial activation and regulates microglial phenotype in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

Author information

1
Discipline of Neuroscience, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Department of Navy Aviation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, the Naval Military Medical University; Department of Navy Aviation Medicine, Naval Medical center of PLA, the Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
2
Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, the Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
3
Departments of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
4
Department of Navy Aviation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, the Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
5
Department of Neurosurgery, Changzheng Hospital, the Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
6
Discipline of Neuroscience, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

Microglia participate in bi-directional control of brain repair after stroke. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen protects brain after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by inhibiting inflammation, but the specific mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen is poorly understood. The goal of our study is to investigate whether inhalation of high concentration hydrogen (HCH) is able to attenuate I/R-induced microglia activation. Eighty C57B/L male mice were divided into four groups: sham, I/R, I/R + HCH and I/R + N2/O2 groups. Assessment of animals happened in "blind" matter. I/R was induced by occlusion of middle cerebral artery for one hour). After one hour, filament was withdrawn, which induced reperfusion. Hydrogen treated I/R animals inhaled mix of 66.7% H2 balanced with O2 for 90 minutes, starting immediately after initiation of reperfusion. Control animals (N2/O2) inhaled mix in which hydrogen was replaced with N2 for the same time (90 minutes). The brain injury, such as brain infarction and development of brain edema, as well as neurobehavioral deficits were determined 23 hours after reperfusion. Effect of HCH on microglia activation in the ischemic penumbra was investigated by immunostaining also 23 hours after reperfusion. mRNA expression of inflammation related genes was detected by PCR. Our results showed that HCH attenuated brain injury and consequently reduced neurological dysfunction after I/R. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HCH directed microglia polarization towards anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. This study indicates hydrogen may exert neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the microglial activation and regulating microglial polarization. This study was conducted in agreement with the Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) and Institutional Animal Care guidelines regulation (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China (approval No. A2015-011) in November 2015.

KEYWORDS:

hydrogen; inflammation; ischemic stroke; macrophages; microglial phenotype; neuroprotection; polarization.; reperfusion

PMID:
31552875
DOI:
10.4103/2045-9912.266987
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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