Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2019 Sep 24;14(9):e0214264. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214264. eCollection 2019.

Association between hot flashes severity and oxidative stress among Mexican postmenopausal women: A cross-sectional study.

Author information

Unidad de Investigación en Gerontología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.
División de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Hospital Gustavo Baz Prada, Instituto de Salud del Estado de México, Nezahualcoyotl, Estado de México, México.



To assess the association between hot flashes (HFs) severity and oxidative stress (OS) in Mexican postmenopausal women.


A cross-sectional study was carried out with perimenopausal women aged 40-59 years community-dwelling from Mexico City, Mexico. They participated in Menopause and Oxidative Stress Project. The baseline sample consisted of 476 women recruited to participate; 161 women were excluded due to different reasons. Hence, 315 women were selected to establish two groups, a) 145 premenopausal women (yet with menstrual bleeding), and b) 170 postmenopausal women (without menses). All women were free of cardiovascular, kidney, hepatic or cancer disease, and without antioxidant supplement intake for at least six months prior to the beginning of the study; none had previously received hormone therapy. As OS markers, we measured plasma malondialdehyde using the TBARS assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), uric acid, and total antioxidant status; also, we calculated SOD/GPx ratio, antioxidant gap and an oxidative stress score ranging from 0 to 7. The HFs were evaluated using the Menopause Rating Scale. The women completed Spanish version of the Athens Insomnia Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and a questionnaire of pro-oxidant factors.


Stress score increased with HFs severity (mild 2.7±0.17, moderate 2.9±0.20 and severe 3.7±0.20, p = 0.001) in postmenopausal women. We observed a positive correlation between HFs severity and stress score, r = 0.247 (p = 0.001) in postmenopausal women; other test scores were not correlated. Severe HFs were a risk factor for OS (OR = 5.12, 95%CI: 1.99-13.17, p<0.05) in an adjusted multivariate analysis by different postmenopausal symptoms and pro-oxidant factors; we did not see any association in premenopausal women.


Our findings suggest an association between HFs severity and OS in Mexican postmenopausal women.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center