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Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 22;20(19). pii: E4694. doi: 10.3390/ijms20194694.

Beneficial and Deleterious Effects of Female Sex Hormones, Oral Contraceptives, and Phytoestrogens by Immunomodulation on the Liver.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación en Biología de la Reproducción, Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Calle Dr. Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa no. 400, Col. Doctores, Pachuca Hidalgo 42090, Mexico. soriajasso@gmail.com.
2
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación en Biología de la Reproducción, Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Calle Dr. Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa no. 400, Col. Doctores, Pachuca Hidalgo 42090, Mexico. raquelcarcortes@gmail.com.
3
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación en Biología de la Reproducción, Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Calle Dr. Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa no. 400, Col. Doctores, Pachuca Hidalgo 42090, Mexico. victor9783@hotmail.com.
4
Hospital de Ortopedia "Dr. Victorio de la Fuente Narváez", IMSS, Mexico 07760, Mexico. elizabeth.perezh@imss.gob.mx.
5
Programa Institucional de Biomedicina Molecular, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico 07320, Mexico. nperezh@ipn.mx.
6
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación en Biología de la Reproducción, Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Calle Dr. Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa no. 400, Col. Doctores, Pachuca Hidalgo 42090, Mexico. efernan@uaeh.edu.mx.

Abstract

The liver is considered the laboratory of the human body because of its many metabolic processes. It accomplishes diverse activities as a mixed gland and is in continuous cross-talk with the endocrine system. Not only do hormones from the gastrointestinal tract that participate in digestion regulate the liver functions, but the sex hormones also exert a strong influence on this sexually dimorphic organ, via their receptors expressed in liver, in both health and disease. Besides, the liver modifies the actions of sex hormones through their metabolism and transport proteins. Given the anatomical position and physiological importance of liver, this organ is evidenced as an immune vigilante that mediates the systemic immune response, and, in turn, the immune system regulates the hepatic functions. Such feedback is performed by cytokines. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are strongly involved in hepatic homeostasis and in pathological states; indeed, female sex hormones, oral contraceptives, and phytoestrogens have immunomodulatory effects in the liver and the whole organism. To analyze the complex and interesting beneficial or deleterious effects of these drugs by their immunomodulatory actions in the liver can provide the basis for either their pharmacological use in therapeutic treatments or to avoid their intake in some diseases.

KEYWORDS:

cholestasis; cirrhosis; cytokines; immunomodulation; liver; oral contraceptives; phytoestrogens; sex hormones

PMID:
31546715
PMCID:
PMC6801544
DOI:
10.3390/ijms20194694
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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