Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Oct;67(10):1673-1677. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_253_19.

Morphometric analysis of retinal arterioles in control and hypertensive population using adaptive optics imaging.

Author information

Department of Vitreoretina, Narayana Nethralaya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.



To measure the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) and the vascular wall cross-sectional area (WCSA) of retinal arterioles by an Adaptive Optics (AO) retinal camera using semi-automated software and comparing them between control and hypertensive population.


This was a cross-sectional observational study including a hypertensive group and a control group. Subjects were examined and their medical history recorded. Retinal arteriolar morphometry was assessed by rtx1 AO retinal camera using AOdetect Artery semiautomated software. Main Outcome Measures: WLR and WCSA were measured on the basis of retinal arteriolar wall thickness (W1, W2), lumen diameter (LD) and vessel diameter (VD). Influence of age and arterial hypertension on the WLR and WCSA were examined.


A total of 150 human subjects were included out of which 110 were controls and 40 were hypertensives under treatment. There was statistically significant difference in the age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the control and hypertensive groups (P < 0.01). We found no significant correlation between age and WLR (R2 = 0.049, P > 0.05) or age and WCSA (R2 = 0.045, P > 0.05). We observed a significant difference in WLR and WCSA measurements between control and hypertensive groups (P < 0.01). On measuring intra-observer variability (IOV) we found excellent consistency.


AO retinal imaging allows a direct measurement of the retinal vessel wall and LD with excellent IOV. WLR and WCSA reflect the remodelling process and can be used to further aid the early detection and monitoring of systemic hypertension.


Adaptive optics imaging; cross-sectional area of the vascular wall; hypertension; wall-to-lumen ratio

Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center