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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Nov 28;29(11):1817-1829. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1908.08013.

Functional Characterization and Proteomic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus Accessory Protein NS7.

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Animal Virology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, BK21 PLUS KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.


Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric coronavirus that causes diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Like other coronaviruses, PDCoV encodes at least three accessory or species-specific proteins; however, the biological roles of these proteins in PDCoV replication remain undetermined. As a first step toward understanding the biology of the PDCoV accessory proteins, we established a stable porcine cell line constitutively expressing the PDCoV NS7 protein in order to investigate the functional characteristics of NS7 for viral replication. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation revealed that the NS7 protein was extensively distributed in the mitochondria. Proteomic analysis was then conducted to assess the expression dynamics of the host proteins in the PDCoV NS7-expressing cells. Highresolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis initially identified 48 protein spots which were differentially expressed in the presence of NS7. Seven of these spots, including two upregulated and five down-regulated protein spots, showed statistically significant alterations, and were selected for subsequent protein identification. The affected cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into functional groups involved in various cellular processes such as cytoskeleton networks and cell communication, metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. A substantial down-regulation of α-actinin-4 was confirmed in NS7-expressing and PDCoV-infected cells. These proteomic data will provide insights into the understanding of specific cellular responses to the accessory protein during PDCoV infection.


ACTN-4; NS7; PDCoV; accessory protein; mitochondrial localization; proteomics

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